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Sunday, 15 March 2015

Past Simple / Pasado Simple

Para formar la afirmativa del pasado simple:
- La regla general es que todas las personas acaben en –ed.
Ex. want – wanted, play – played, help – helped
- Para los verbos que terminan en –e, sólo se añade d.
Ex. change – changed, believe – believed, love – loved, date - dated
-Si el verbo termina en una consonante + y, se sustituye la y por una i.
Ex. study – studied, marry – married, carry - carried
- Si el verbo es de una sola sílaba y termina en consonante + vocal + consonante, se dobla la consonante
Ex. stop – stopped, rob – robbed, mob – mobbed,
- Si el verbo tiene más de una sílaba y termina en consonante + vocal + consonante, se dobla la última consonante siempre que esa sílaba esté acentuada. O sea, que el acento caiga en esa sílaba. Si no, no.
Ex. permit – permitted, admit – admitted, prefer – preferred
Hay dos excepciones a esta regla, pero sólo en inglés británico: cancel – cancelled y travel – travelled. O sea, que si no doblas, nada pasa salvo que te corrija alguien que no sepa que se puede no doblar.
- Ojo con w e y porque lo de consonante + vocal + consonante no es razón para doblar si la última consonante es w o y. Por lo tanto, play – played, y mow – mowed. Esas dos letras no se doblan nunca.
- Todas esas normas eran para los verbos regulares. Ahora te toca aprender de memoria el pasado de todos los verbos irregulares. Sí no te he dado una lista, pídemela.

Practice:
1. Lola ____________ (move) to Honolulu last year.
2. Joseph ____________ (burn) all those papers.
3. Sara ____________(study) Italian in Florence.
4. We _____________(visit) the Prado Museum.
5. Peter ____________(hate) spiders.
6. The children ___________(hurry) home.
7. Alfred ___________ (prefer) spicy food to bland food.
8. George __________ (travel) to Miami every winter.
9. We __________ (stay) at an hotel by the sea.
10. Lucy ___________ (marry) three times.
11. Peter ___________ (play) tennis every afternoon.
12. You ____________ (want) to go to the circus.

Para formar la negativa del pasado simple:
Se usa did + not + verbo principal en infinitivo. Sí, para todas las personas. Sí, se puede contraer: didn’t. Y sí, para todos los verbos igual, regulares o irregulares.
Ex. I didn’t go home early. You didn´t eat the vegetables. He didn’t live near our house.
She didn’t believe us. It didn’t stop making noise. We didn’t need friends. You didn´t have a car. They didn’t visit Amsterdam.

Practice:
1. I ______________ (not see) Elizabeth yesterday.
2. Sandra _____________ (not buy) ten pairs of shoes.
3. You ______________(not fight) with Paul.
4. The insect ______________ (not bite).
5. Jenny and Albert ____________ (not paint) their house yellow.
6. The bus ______________ (not stop) near the park.
7. We _____________ (not give) Helen money.
8.  The men ___________ (not work) for the telephone company.
9. They _______________ (not fix) the fridge.
10. She ______________ (not lose) the keys.
11. It _______________ (not frighten) us.
12. James ______________(not open) the door.

Para formar la interrogativa del pasado simple:

Formula para Yes / No questions:
verbo auxiliar Did + sujeto + verbo principal en infinitivo+ resto + ?
Ex. Did James open the door?

Practice:

1.
Yes, we shut the windows.

2.
No, they didn’t buy grapes.

3.
Yes, Peter cooked dinner.

4.
No, nobody arrived late.

5.
Yes, they had a dog.

6.
No, I didn’t live near the bank.

7.
Yes, she sat on a bench in the park.

8.
No, Sam didn’t drive to Manchester.

Formula para Wh- questions:
QW + verbo auxiliar did + sujeto + verbo principal en infinitivo + resto +?
Ex. Where did you learn Chinese?

Practice:

1.
Sam arrived at ten o´clock.

2.
We bought a new car.


3.
Mrs. Milton taught Peter Maths.

4.
He opened the door with your key.

5.
The cat slept in the kitchen.

Si lo que no se sabe es el verbo principal, ya sabes que se sustituye por do.

6.
John went home.

7.
The neighbors mowed the lawn. (cortaron el césped)

8.
Percy wrote a poem for Mary.

Si lo que no se sabe es el sujeto, ya sabes que éste no puede aparecer en la pregunta. Pero en el pasado simple también desaparece el verbo auxiliar did. No se puede poner ni el sujeto ni el verbo auxiliar en la pregunta. Al no haber verbo auxiliar, el verbo principal tiene que ir en pasado. No se puede usar el infinitivo. Eje. Who cleaned the garage?

9.
Dr. Lester fixed Johnny’s teeth.

10.
Felisa designed those clothes.

Y para el objeto, preposicion + whom al principio o who + todo el rollo + preposición:

10. – 11.
Percy wrote a poem for Mary.

12. – 13.
Sylvia bought the computer from Albert.

14. – 15.
Ian gave the letter to Mark.

Además de todo esto, tienes un past simple test y una lista para hacer 21 preguntas en past simple en este blog. Y hasta otra entrada explicando lo mismo para que puedas repasar esto de cero otra vez.


Saturday, 14 March 2015

Past of To Be / Pasado de to be

Pasado del Verbo To Be:

Se forma con: Was / Were / Wasn’t / Weren’t 

Affirmative:
I was happy.  / Yo era feliz.
You were happy. / Tú eras feliz.
He was happy. / Él era feliz.
She was happy. / Ella era feliz.
It was happy. /  (Neutro) era feliz.
We were happy. / Nosotros éramos felices.
You were happy. / Vosotros erais felices.
They were happy. / Ellos-ellas- sin género eran felices.

Practice:
1. Susan ___________ in love.
2. The children _________ friendly.
3. The baby _________ cute.
4. My grandparents ___________ Welsh.
5. Your garden ___________ beautiful.
6. Sandra __________ in Iceland.

Negative:
I wasn’t tired.  / Yo no estaba cansado.
You weren’t tired. / Tú  no estabas cansado.
He wasn’t tired. / Él no estaba cansado.
She wasn’t tired. / Ella no estaba cansada.
It wasn’t tired. /  (Neutro) no estaba cansado.
We weren’t tired. / Nosotros no estábamos cansados.
You weren’t tired. / Vosotros no estabais cansados.
They weren’t tired. / Ellos-ellas- sin género no estaban cansados.

Practice:
1. The students ___________ lazy.
2. Our house in Brighton ____________ small.
3. Their car ____________ a Mercedes.
4. We _____________ sad.
5. Ana ____________ ill.
6. Bill ____________ at home yesterday afternoon.

Interrogative:

Yes / No Questions:

Formula: verbo was o were + sujeto + resto +?
Were you in France? / ¿Estabas en Francia?
Was she Irish? / ¿Era irlandesa?

Practice:
1.
Yes, Ilya was Russian.

2.
No, Fong wasn’t a cook.

3.
Yes, the weather was fine.

4.
No, the boys weren’t at school.

5.
Yes, the mailman was here this morning.

Wh Questions: (questions with question words)

Formula: QW +  verbo was o were + sujeto + resto +?
When was the party?

1.
Our cousins were in Japan during the Tsunami.

2.
Sara was fine.

3.
The fire was near the gasoline station.

3.
The music classes were on Tuesday mornings.

4.
The room was cold because Peter left the Windows open.

5.
The bags were Rita¨s.

6.
That noise was an ambulance.

Si preguntas por el sujeto, este no puede aparecer en la pregunta.

7.
Sara was the tallest girl in class.

8.
The Kajitas were our Japanese neighbours.

9.
The gardeners were outside.
10.
The food was in the big basket..

11.
Peter was with John.

Y para who y whom:

12.-13.

Peter was with John.

14. -15
The gift was from the Nelsons.





Tuesday, 10 March 2015

Appointment With Death / Cita con La Muerte


The Appointment in Samarra

A merchant in Baghdad sends his servant to the marketplace for provisions. Shortly, the servant comes home white and trembling and tells him that in the marketplace he was jostled by a woman, whom he recognized as Death, and she made a threatening gesture. Borrowing the merchant’s horse, he flees at top speed to Samarra, a distance of about 75 miles, where he believes Death will not find him. The merchant then goes to the marketplace and finds Death, and asks why she made the threatening gesture. She replies, “That was not a threatening gesture, it was only a start of surprise. I was astonished to see him in Baghdad, for I had an appointment with him tonight in Samarra.”

La Cita en Samarra

Un mercader en Bagdad envió a su criado al mercado a por provisiones. Al poco tiempo el criado volvió a casa, pálido y tembloroso y diciéndole que en el mercado había tropezado con una mujer y se había dado cuenta de que era La Muerte, y que ésta le había hecho un gesto amenazante. Tomando prestado el caballo del mercader, el criado partió volando hacia Samarra, que estaba a una distancia de unas 75 millas, convencido de que allí La Muerte no le encontraría. Entonces el mercader fue al mercado y vio allí a La Muerte y le preguntó por qué había hecho aquel gesto amenazante. “No era un gesto amenazante,” respondió ésta. “Sólo era una expresión de sorpresa. Me extrañó ver a tu criado en Bagdad, pues tengo una cita con él esta noche en Samarra."



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